Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
3 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes

5. Income Taxes


Income Tax (Benefit) Provision


Our effective tax rate was 0.1% and 13.8% for the three months ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The effective tax rate for the three months ended December 31, 2022 differs from the U.S. statutory tax rate of 21% primarily due to higher state taxes partially offset by lower taxes in foreign jurisdictions. For the three months ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, we recorded an income tax benefit of $4,000 and income tax expense of $0.2 million, respectively. The quarterly income tax provision is calculated using an estimated annual effective tax rate, based upon expected annual income, permanent items, statutory rates and planned tax strategies in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. However, losses in certain jurisdictions and discrete items are excluded from the determination of the estimated annual effective tax rate.


Deferred Income Taxes and Valuation Allowance


GAAP requires that a valuation allowance be established when it is “more likely than not” that all or a portion of deferred tax assets will not be realized. A review of all available positive and negative evidence needs to be considered, including a company’s performance, the market environment in which the company operates and the length of carryback and carryforward periods. According to those principles, it is difficult to conclude that a valuation allowance is not needed when the negative evidence includes cumulative losses in recent years. Based on the considerations of all available evidence, we have concluded that we will maintain a full valuation allowance for all net deferred tax assets related to the carryforwards of U.S. net operating losses and foreign tax credits. We will continue to monitor our cumulative income and loss positions in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions to determine whether full valuation allowances on net deferred tax assets are appropriate. We expect to pay minimal U.S federal cash taxes for the foreseeable future as a result of our U.S. net operating losses that are carried forward.