Summary of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Summary of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies||
1. Summary of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business – Amtech is a leading, global manufacturer of capital equipment, including thermal processing and wafer polishing, and related consumables used in fabricating semiconductor devices, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon power devices, analog and discrete devices, electronic assemblies and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We sell these products to semiconductor device and module manufacturers worldwide, particularly in Asia, North America and Europe.
We serve niche markets in industries that are experiencing technological advances, and which historically have been very cyclical. Therefore, future profitability and growth depend on our ability to develop or acquire and market profitable new products and on our ability to adapt to cyclical trends.
Our fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30. Unless otherwise stated, references to the years 2022, 2021 and 2020 relate to the fiscal years ended September 30, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
In March 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, and the outbreak became increasingly widespread, including in all of the markets in which we operate. We continue to monitor the impact of COVID-19 on all aspects of our business. We are a company operating in a critical infrastructure industry, as defined by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Consistent with federal guidelines and with foreign government, state and local orders to date, we have continued to operate across our footprint throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the onset of COVID-19 and its negative effects on our business, most prominently reflected in our second, third and fourth quarter fiscal 2020 results, global economic conditions improved during fiscal 2021, resulting in increased demand for our products and services, which led to our earnings for fiscal 2021 substantially exceeding our fiscal 2020 results. There remain many unknowns and we continue to monitor the expected trends and related demand for our products and services and have and will continue to adjust our operations accordingly.
On March 28, 2022, the Chinese government issued a mandatory shutdown in Shanghai, the location of one of our manufacturing facilities. The factory was allowed to partially reopen in May 2022 and was fully reopened on June 1, 2022. Upon reopening on June 1, 2022, the factory was able to operate at near full capacity for the entire month of June. We were able to make up the shipments missed in the fourth quarter and are now operating at normal capacity levels. Additionally, given the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic and the emergence of variations thereof, there can be no assurance that this facility will be allowed to remain open on a consistent basis.
Principles of Consolidation – The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates – The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Reclassifications – Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year financial statement footnotes to conform to the current year presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the previously reported consolidated financial statements for any period.
Divestitures – Significant accounting policies associated with a decision to dispose of a business are discussed below:
Discontinued Operations – A business is classified as discontinued operations if the disposal represents a strategic shift that will have a major effect on operations or financial results and meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale or is disposed of by sale or otherwise. Significant judgments are involved in determining whether a business meets the criteria for discontinued operations reporting and the period in which these criteria are met. If a business is reported as a discontinued operation, the results of operations through the date of sale, including any gain or loss recognized on the disposition, are presented on a separate line of the Consolidated Statement of Operations. Interest on debt directly attributable to the discontinued operation is allocated to discontinued operations.
Assets Held for Sale – An asset or business is classified as held for sale when (i) management commits to a plan to sell and it is actively marketed; (ii) it is available for immediate sale and the sale is expected to be completed within one year; and (iii) it is unlikely significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn. In isolated instances, assets held for sale may exceed one year due to events or circumstances beyond our control. The assets and related liabilities are aggregated and reported on separate lines of the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Cash and Cash Equivalents – We consider all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Our cash and cash equivalents consist of amounts invested in U.S. money market funds and various U.S. and foreign bank operating and time deposit accounts.
We maintain our cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash in multiple financial institutions. Balances in the United States, which account for approximately 84% and 83% of total cash balances as of September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, are primarily invested in AAA-rated U.S Treasury and U.S. Government Agency repo money market mutual funds, which have a constant net asset value and consist of direct U.S. Treasuries and/or U.S. Government Agencies with repurchase agreements backed by U.S. Treasury or U.S. Government Agency collateral only, or are in financial institutions insured by the FDIC. The remainder of our cash is maintained with financial institutions with reputable credit in China, the United Kingdom and Malaysia. We maintain cash in bank accounts in amounts which at times may exceed federally insured limits. We have not experienced any losses on such accounts.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts – Accounts receivable are recorded at the sales price of products sold to customers on trade credit terms. Accounts receivable are considered past due when payment has not been received from the customer within the normal credit terms extended to that customer. A valuation allowance is established for accounts when collection is no longer probable. Accounts are written off against the allowance when the probability of collection is remote. Historically, these write-offs have been immaterial.
Inventories – We value our inventory at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. Inventory cost includes the purchase price of parts or finished goods, labor, overhead and any freight cost incurred to receive the inventory into our manufacturing facilities. We regularly review inventory quantities and record a write-down to net realizable value for excess and obsolete inventory. The write-down is primarily based on historical inventory usage adjusted for expected changes in product demand and production requirements. Our industry is characterized by customers in highly-cyclical industries, rapid technological changes, frequent new product developments and rapid product obsolescence. Changes in demand for our products could result in further write-downs.
Property, Plant and Equipment – Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost upon acquisition. We begin depreciation and amortization when an asset is both in the location and condition for its intended use. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. The cost of property retired or sold and the related accumulated depreciation and amortization are removed from the applicable accounts when disposition occurs and any gain or loss is recognized. Depreciation and amortization are computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset. Useful lives for equipment and machinery range from to seven years; for leasehold improvements from to fifteen years; for furniture and fixtures from to ten years; and for buildings from 20 to 30 years.
Reviews are regularly performed to determine whether facts and circumstances exist which indicate that the useful life is shorter than originally estimated or the carrying amount of assets may not be recoverable. Impairment, if any, is based on the excess of the carrying amount over the estimated fair value of those assets.
Leases – We determine if a contract or arrangement is, or contains, a lease at inception. Balances related to operating leases are included in right-of-use ("ROU") assets in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Balances related to financing leases are immaterial and are included in property, plant and equipment and finance lease liabilities and long-term debt in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease.
ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As none of our leases provide an implicit rate, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The ROU asset includes any prepaid lease payments and additional direct costs and excludes lease incentives. Our lease terms may
include options to extend or terminate the lease, which we include in the recognition of the ROU asset and lease liability, when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option.
We lease office space, buildings, land, vehicles and equipment. We made an accounting policy election not to separate non-lease components from lease components for all existing classes of underlying assets with the exception of land and buildings. Lease agreements with an initial term of 12 months or less with no renewal options are not recorded on the balance sheet. Instead, we recognize the lease expense as incurred over the lease term. Our lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. We have one lease that requires the underlying asset to be returned to its original condition at the end of the lease term. The related asset retirement obligation, which is immaterial, is reflected within other long-term liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Certain lease agreements include one or more options to renew, with individual option terms that can extend the lease term from to five years. The exercise of lease renewal options is at our sole discretion. Some equipment leases also include options to purchase the leased property. The estimated life of assets and leasehold improvements are limited by the expected lease term, unless there is a transfer of title or purchase option reasonably certain of exercise.
In June 2022, we entered into a sale-leaseback transaction to facilitate a future move of our Massachusetts operations, pursuant to which we sold the property to a third party and agreed to lease the property back for two years. To determine whether the transfer of the property should be accounted for as a sale, we evaluated whether we transferred control to the third party in accordance with the revenue recognition guidance set forth in ASC 606. The transfer was deemed to be a sale at market terms. Therefore, we recognized the transaction price for the sale based on the cash proceeds received, derecognized the carrying amount of the underlying assets and recognized a gain in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the difference between the carrying value of the asset and the transaction price. We then accounted for the leaseback in accordance with our lease accounting policy.
Intangible Assets – Intangible assets acquired in business combinations are capitalized and subsequently amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful life. We regularly perform reviews to determine if facts and circumstances exist which indicate that the useful lives of our intangible assets are shorter than originally estimated or the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. Impairment, if any, is based on the excess of the carrying amount over the estimated fair value of those assets. Patent costs consist primarily of legal and filing fees incurred to file patents on proprietary methods and technology we developed. Patent costs are expensed when incurred, as they are insignificant.
Goodwill – Goodwill is recorded when the purchase price paid for an acquisition exceeds the estimated fair value of net identified tangible and intangible assets acquired. Goodwill is not subject to amortization but is tested for impairment annually or when it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If it is concluded that there is a potential impairment, we would recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value (although the loss would not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit).
Revenue Recognition – We recognize revenue when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration expected to be received in exchange for those goods or services. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a product or service to the customer. The transaction price of a contract is allocated to each distinct performance obligation based upon the relative standalone selling price ("SSP") for each performance obligation and is recognized as revenue upon satisfaction of the performance obligation. To record revenue properly, we apply the following five steps:
1) Identify the contract with the customer
A contract with a customer exists when (i) we enter into an enforceable contract with a customer that defines each party’s rights regarding the goods or services to be transferred and identifies the related payment terms, (ii) the contract has commercial substance, and (iii) we determine that collection of substantially all consideration for goods and services that are transferred is probable based on the customer’s intent and ability to pay the promised consideration.
2) Identify the performance obligations in the contract
Performance obligations are identified based on the goods and services that will be transferred to the customer that are both (i) capable of being distinct, whereby the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other available resources, and (ii) are distinct in the context of the contract, whereby the transfer of the good or service is separately identifiable from other promises to the customer in the contract. To the extent a contract includes multiple promised goods and services, we must apply judgment to determine whether promised goods and services are capable of being distinct and distinct in the context of the contract. If these criteria are not met, the promised goods and services are accounted for as a combined performance obligation.
Our equipment sales consist of multiple promises, including the delivery of the system itself and obligations that are not delivered simultaneously with the system, such as installation services and training. In most cases, these services require minimal effort and are immaterial in the context of the contract. Therefore, equipment and related services are treated as one performance obligation. Customers who purchase new systems are provided an assurance-type warranty, generally for periods of 12 to 36 months. Assurance-type warranties are not considered a performance obligation.
We account for shipping and handling activities that occur after control of the related good transfers as fulfillment activities instead of assessing such activities as performance obligations.
Our remaining performance obligations as of September 30, 2022, have an original duration of one year or less. Our obligations for returns and/or refunds are immaterial in all periods presented.
3) Determine the transaction price
The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which we will be entitled in exchange for transferring goods and services to the customer.
The transaction price is based on the price reflected in the individual customer’s purchase order.
Occasionally, our customers earn a commission on the purchase and/or resale of our products. These payments to customers are recorded as a reduction of revenue and are less than 5% of our total revenues.
4) Allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract
If the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price to each distinct performance obligation.
When required, the SSP for each performance obligation is based on observable data from standalone sales. To determine the SSP for labor-related performance obligations, we use directly observable inputs based on the standalone sale prices for these services.
5) Recognize revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation
We satisfy performance obligations either over time or at a point in time. Revenue is recognized over time if either (i) the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by our performance, (ii) our performance creates or enhances an asset that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced, or (iii) our performance does not create an asset with an alternative use to the entity and we have an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date. If we do not satisfy a performance obligation over time, the related performance obligation is satisfied at a point in time by transferring the control of a promised good or service to a customer. For over time recognition, we are required to select a single revenue recognition method for the performance obligation that faithfully depicts our performance in transferring control of the goods and services.
Equipment and related product revenues (e.g., furnace systems, system add-ons, machinery, consumables and spare parts) are recognized at a point in time, when they are shipped or delivered, depending on contractual terms.
Revenue for maintenance services are recognized over time based on hours incurred, as the hours incurred align to the maintenance activities performed.
We exclude from the transaction price all sales taxes that are assessed by a governmental authority and that are imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction and collected from a customer (for example, sales, use, value added, and certain excise taxes). Sales taxes are presented on a net basis (excluded from revenues) in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Our remaining performance obligations as of September 30, 2022, have an original duration of one year or less. Our customers generally have payment terms of 60-90 days. We do not have any payment terms that exceed one year from the point we have satisfied the related performance obligations.
Management reviews disaggregated revenue at the reportable segment level. Revenue-generating transactions vary between our reportable segments due to several factors. For example, lead times vary among our reportable segments and among our products. Most of the revenue for our Material and Substrate segment results from the sale of consumables, rather than equipment sales. These consumables have a much shorter production period than equipment produced by our other reportable segment. Due to these variations between reportable segments, management determined that disaggregated revenue by reportable segment sufficiently depicts how economic factors affect the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of our revenue and cash flows. See Note 18 for additional information on our reportable segments.
Contract Assets – Contract assets consist of amounts we are not legally able to invoice but have completed the related performance obligation. These amounts generally arise from variances between the contractual payment terms and the transaction price assigned to the open performance obligations (e.g., we have recognized revenue in an amount greater than the amount that is billable under the contract). There were no contract assets at September 30, 2022 and 2021.
Contract Liabilities – Contract liabilities are reflected in current liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as all performance obligations are expected to be satisfied within the next 12 months. Contract liabilities include customer deposits and deferred profit, if any. Contract liabilities relate to payments invoiced or received in advance of completion of performance obligations under a contract. Contract liabilities are recognized as revenue upon the fulfillment of performance obligations. Contract liabilities consist of customer deposits as of September 30, 2022 and 2021. Of the $1.6 million contract liabilities recorded at September 30, 2021, the entire $1.6 million was recorded as revenue for the year ended September 30, 2022. Of the $1.2 million contract liabilities recorded at September 30, 2020, the entire $1.2 million was recorded as revenue for the year ended September 30, 2021. Of the $1.4 million contract liabilities recorded at September 30, 2019, the entire $1.4 million was recorded as revenue for the year ended September 30, 2020.
Warranty – A limited warranty is provided free of charge, generally for periods of 12 to 36 months to all purchasers of our new products and systems. Accruals are recorded for estimated warranty costs at the time revenue is recognized, generally upon shipment or acceptance, as determined under the revenue recognition policy above. On occasion, we have been required and may be required in the future to provide additional warranty coverage to ensure that the systems are ultimately accepted or to maintain customer goodwill. While our warranty costs have historically been within our expectations and we believe that the amounts accrued for warranty expenditures are sufficient for all systems sold through September 30, 2022, we cannot guarantee that we will continue to experience a similar level of predictability with regard to warranty costs. In addition, technological changes or previously unknown defects in raw materials or components may result in more extensive and frequent warranty service than anticipated, which could result in an increase in our warranty expense.
The following is a summary of activity in accrued warranty expense at our continuing operations, in thousands:
Shipping Expense – Shipping expenses at our continuing operations of $2.4 million, $0.8 million and $0.5 million for 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, are included in selling, general and administrative expenses.
Advertising Expense – Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising expenses at our continuing operations of $0.4 million, $0.2 million and $0.3 million for 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, are included in selling, general and administrative expenses.
Stock-Based Compensation – We measure compensation costs relating to share-based payment transactions based upon the grant-date fair value of the award. Those costs are recognized as expense over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period, with forfeitures recognized as they occur. We estimate the fair value of stock option awards on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The Black-Scholes model requires us to apply estimates, including expected stock price volatility, expected life of the option and the risk-free interest rate.
Research, Development and Engineering Expenses – RD&E expenses consist of the cost of employees, consultants and contractors who design, engineer and develop new products and processes as well as materials and supplies used in producing prototypes. RD&E expenses may vary from period to period depending on the engineering projects in process. Expenses related to engineers working on strategic projects or sustaining engineering projects are recorded in RD&E. However, from time to time we add functionality to our products or develop new products during engineering and manufacturing to fulfill specifications in a customer’s order, in which case the cost of development, along with other costs of the order, are charged to cost of goods sold. When certain contract requirements are met, governmental research and development grants are netted against research, development and engineering expenses. The following is a summary of our research, development and engineering expense, thousands:
Foreign Currency Transactions and Translation – We use the U.S. dollar as our reporting currency. Our operations in the UK, China and other countries are primarily conducted in their functional currencies, the Euro, Renminbi, or the local country currency, respectively. Accordingly, assets and liabilities of the subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet dates. Income and expense items are translated at the average exchange rate for each month within the year. The resulting translation adjustments are recorded directly in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax - foreign currency translation adjustments as a separate component of shareholders’ equity. Net foreign currency transaction gains/losses, including transaction gains/losses on intercompany balances that are not of a long-term investment nature and non-functional currency cash balances, are reported as a separate component of non-operating (income) expense in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Income Taxes – We file consolidated federal income tax returns in the United States for all subsidiaries except those in China and the UK, where separate returns are filed. We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities for the expected future tax
consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, we determine deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities on the basis of the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities by using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
We recognize deferred tax assets to the extent that we believe that these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, carryback potential if permitted under the tax law and results of recent operations. If we determine that we would not be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, we would make an adjustment to the deferred tax asset through recognizing a valuation allowance, which would increase the provision for income taxes.
Concentrations of Credit Risk – Our customers are primarily manufacturers of semiconductor substrates and devices and electronic assemblies. Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and trade accounts receivable. Credit risk is managed by performing credit evaluations of the customers’ financial condition, by requiring significant deposits where appropriate, and by actively monitoring collections. Letters of credit are required of certain customers depending on the size of the order, type of customer or its creditworthiness, and country of domicile.
As of September 30, 2022, one Semiconductor customer individually represented 12% of accounts receivable. As of September 30, 2021, one Semiconductor customer individually represented 14% of accounts receivable.
Refer to Note 20 for information regarding revenue and assets in other countries subject to fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rates.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments – We group our financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis into three levels, based on the markets in which the assets and liabilities are traded and the reliability of the assumptions used to determine fair value. These levels are:
Level 1 – Valuation is based upon quoted market price for identical instruments traded in active markets.
Level 2 – Valuation is based on quoted market prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market.
Level 3 – Valuation is generated from model-based techniques that use significant assumptions not observable in the market. Valuation techniques include use of discounted cash flow models and similar techniques.
It is our policy to use observable inputs whenever reasonably practicable in order to minimize the use of unobservable inputs when developing fair value measurements. When available, we use quoted market prices to measure fair value. If market prices are not available, the fair value measurement is based on models that use primarily market-based parameters including interest rate yield curves, option volatilities and currency rates. In certain cases, where market rate assumptions are not available, we are required to make judgments about assumptions market participants would use to estimate the fair value of a financial instrument. Changes in the underlying assumptions used, including discount rates and estimates of future cash flows, could significantly affect current or future valuations.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash – Included in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash in the Consolidated Balance Sheets are money market funds invested in treasury bills, notes and other direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury and foreign bank operating and time deposit accounts. Cash equivalents are classified as Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy.
Receivables and Payables – The recorded amounts of these financial instruments, including accounts receivable and accounts payable, approximate their fair value because of the short maturities of these instruments.
Debt – Due to the relatively short-term nature of the debt, we believe that the carrying value approximated fair value. We paid this debt in full on June 23, 2022 upon the closing of the sale of our Massachusetts manufacturing facility (see Note 8).
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
There were no new accounting pronouncements issued or effective as of September 30, 2022 that had or are expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the general note to the financial statements for the reporting entity which may include, descriptions of the basis of presentation, business description, significant accounting policies, consolidations, reclassifications, new pronouncements not yet adopted and changes in accounting principles.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef