|3 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]|
7. Income Taxes
For the three months ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we recorded income tax expense at our continuing operations of $0.1 million and $41,000, respectively. Tax expense for the three months ended December 31, 2020, includes a benefit of approximately $0.3 million related to the reversal of previously recorded uncertain tax positions. In the three months ended December 31, 2019, we recorded income tax expense of $19,000 in our discontinued operations. The quarterly income tax provision is calculated using an estimated annual effective tax rate, based upon expected annual income, permanent items, statutory rates and planned tax strategies in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. However, losses in certain jurisdictions and discrete items are treated separately.
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), which was signed into law on March 27, 2020, included a provision for a five-year carryback of net operating losses. We have assessed the benefit of the provision and utilized a portion of the 2019 net operating loss carryback to offset income from 2018. The impacts of this provision were recognized during fiscal 2020.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect the tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying value of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. We record a valuation allowance if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. Our expectations regarding realization of our deferred tax assets is based upon the weight of all available evidence, including such factors as our recent earnings history, expected future taxable income and available tax planning strategies. We established valuation allowances on substantially all net U.S. deferred tax assets, after considering all of the available objective evidence, both positive and negative, historical and prospective, with greater weight given to historical evidence, and determined it is not more likely than not that these assets will be realized. In 2020, we reversed a portion of the valuation allowance related to foreign deferred tax assets which we have determined will be utilized against net operating income in future years. We will continue to monitor our cumulative income and loss positions in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions to determine whether full valuation allowances on net deferred tax assets are appropriate.
We classify all of our uncertain tax positions as income taxes payable long-term. At December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2020, the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits was approximately $0.9 million and $1.2 million, respectively. Income taxes payable long-term includes other items, primarily withholding taxes that are not due until the related intercompany service fees are paid.
We classify interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits as income tax expense. As of December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2020, we had an accrual for potential interest and penalties of approximately $0.6 million and $0.8 million, respectively, classified with income taxes payable long-term.
Amtech and one or more of its subsidiaries file income tax returns in China and other foreign jurisdictions, as well as in the U.S. and various states in the U.S. We have not signed any agreements with the Internal Revenue Service, any state or foreign jurisdiction to extend the statute of limitations for any fiscal year. As such, the number of open years is the number of years dictated by statute in each of the respective taxing jurisdictions, which generally is from 3 to 5 years.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef