|3 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]
8. Income Taxes
For the three months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we recorded income tax expense at our continuing operations of $41,000 and $0.6 million, respectively. In the three months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we recorded income tax expense of $19,000 and $18,000, respectively, in our discontinued operations. The quarterly income tax provision is calculated using an estimated annual effective tax rate, based upon expected annual income, permanent items, statutory rates and planned tax strategies in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. However, losses in certain jurisdictions and discrete items are treated separately.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect the tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying value of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. We record a valuation allowance if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. Our expectations regarding realization of our deferred tax assets is based upon the weight of all available evidence, including such factors as our recent earnings history, expected future taxable income and available tax planning strategies. We established valuation allowances on substantially all net deferred tax assets, after considering all of the available objective evidence, both positive and negative, historical and prospective, with greater weight given to historical evidence, and determined it is not more likely than not that these assets will be realized. We will continue to monitor our cumulative income and loss positions in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions to determine whether full valuation allowances on net deferred tax assets are appropriate.
We classify all of our uncertain tax positions as income taxes payable long-term. At both December 31, 2019 and September 30, 2019, the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits was approximately $1.3 million. Income taxes payable long-term includes other items, primarily withholding taxes that are not due until the related intercompany service fees are paid.
We classify interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits as income tax expense. As of both December 31, 2019 and September 30, 2019, we had an accrual for potential interest and penalties of approximately $0.8 million classified with income taxes payable long-term.
Amtech and one or more of our subsidiaries file income tax returns in The Netherlands, Germany, France, China and other foreign jurisdictions, as well as in the U.S. and various states in the U.S. We have not signed any agreements with the Internal Revenue Service, any state or foreign jurisdiction to extend the statute of limitations for any fiscal year. As such, the number of open years is the number of years dictated by statute in each of the respective taxing jurisdictions, which generally is from 3 to 5 years.